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Sir Clive Sinclair, the inventor and entrepreneur who was instrumental in bringing home computers to the masses, has died at the age of 81.
His daughter, Belinda, said he died at home in London on Thursday morning after a long illness. Sinclair invented the pocket calculator but was best known for popularising the home computer, bringing it to British high-street stores at relatively affordable prices.
Many modern-day titans of the games industry got their start on one of his ZX models. For a certain generation of gamer, the computer of choice was either the ZX Spectrum 48K or its rival, the Commodore 64.
Elon Musk, the Tesla and SpaceX chief, commented on Twitter on an article calling Sir Clive the father of the ZX Spectrum: “RIP, Sir Sinclair. I loved that computer.”
Belinda Sinclair, 57, told the Guardian: “He was a rather amazing person. Of course, he was so clever and he was always interested in everything. My daughter and her husband are engineers so he’d be chatting engineering with them.”
He left school at 17 and worked for four years as a technical journalist to raise funds to found Sinclair Radionics.
In the early 1970s he designed a series of calculators designed to be small and light enough to ﬁt in the pocket at a time when most existing models were the size of an old-fashioned shop till. “He wanted to make things small and cheap so people could access them,” his daughter said.
His ﬁrst home computer, the ZX80, named after the year it appeared, revolutionised the market, although it was a far cry from today’s models. At £79.95 in kit form and £99.95 assembled, it was about one-ﬁfth of the price of other home computers at the time. It sold 50,000, units while its successor, the ZX81, which replaced it, cost £69.95 and sold 250,000. Many games industry veterans got their start typing programs into its touch-based keyboard and became hooked on games such as as 3D Monster Maze and Mazogs. The ZX80 and ZX81 made him very rich: in 2010 Sinclair told the Guardian: “Within two or three years, we made £14m proﬁt in a year.”
The business mogul Lord Sugar paid tribute to his “good friend and competitor” on Twitter, writing: “What a guy he kickstarted consumer electronics in the UK with his ampliﬁer kits then calculators, watches mini TV and of course the Sinclair ZX. Not to forget his quirky electric car. R. I.P Friend.”
In 1982, he released the ZX Spectrum 48K. Its rubber keys, strange clashing visuals and tinny sound did not prevent it being pivotal in the development of the British games industry. Much-loved games — now in colour — that inspired a generation included Jet Set Willy, Horace Goes Skiing, Chuckie Egg, Saboteur, Knight Lore and Lords of Midnight.
Sinclair became a household name as his products ﬂew off the shelves and was awarded a knighthood in 1983. But he would also become synonymous with one of his less successful inventions — the Sinclair C5 — which would cost him ﬁnancially. The C5, a battery-powered electric trike, was launched in January 1985, with Sinclair predicting sales of 100,000 in the ﬁrst year.
But it ﬂopped, and Sinclair Vehicles found itself in receivership by October of the same year. Reviews expressed concerns about the safety of driving a vehicle below the sight line of other motorists, as well as exposure to the elements. The following year, Sinclair sold his computer business to Amstrad.
The Sinclair TV80, a pocket TV, was another device, like the C5, that did not catch on, although people now regularly view programmes on their mobile phones. And although they do not look like the Sinclair C5, which later acquired cult status, electric vehicles are, of course, all the rage today.
Belinda Sinclair said: “It was the ideas, the challenge, that he found exciting. He’d come up with an idea and say, ‘There’s no point in asking if someone wants it, because they can’t imagine it.’”
But he did not make personal use of his own inventions. His daughter said he never had a pocket calculator as far as she knew, instead carrying a slide-rule around with him at all times. And he told interviewers he used neither a computer nor email.
Outside inventing, his interests included poetry, running marathons and poker. He appeared in the ﬁrst three seasons of the Late Night Poker television series and won the ﬁrst season ﬁnal of the Celebrity Poker Club spinoff, defeating Keith Allen.
He is survived by Belinda, his sons Crispin and Bartholomew, aged 55 and 52 respectively, ﬁve grandchildren and two great-grandchildren.
This article was amended on 17 September 2021. A reference in an earlier version to Sinclair having “invented” a series of small calculators was changed to “designed”.
#Shitlassian - story about how Atlassian ﬁred me because my wife had cancer, who is characterized for his frequent tendency to lie, which causes his nose to grow. This is a real story about how Atlassian turned the life of Software Engineer into a nightmare, and how they terminated me while I was taking care of my wife who is ﬁghting cancer. This story is about lies, violations of the law, about how desperate and disposable people are in this neo-feudalist organization - Atlassian, and about WHY YOU SHOULD NEVER JOIN ATLASSIAN, AVOID AT ALL COSTS, NEVER USE THEIR SOFTWARE AND RECONSIDER THEM IF YOU’RE ALREADY USING THEIR SOFTWARE.Interesting fact 1: Atlassian is the only company that has words “shit” and “fuck” in their core values.Interesting fact 2: While everyday work in Atlassian might look normal, the reality is that when you’re in times of struggle, you’ll get screwed by their toxic managers, HRs, PeopleOps, and founders. In Atlassian you’re disposable. Even if you feel ﬁne in the company you should seriously consider other opportunities. Read my story to learn moreI joined Atlassian in the beginning 2019 as a Senior Software Engineer (P5) in United States, San Francisco location. Life and work were normal. I did a lot for the company, received recognition from managers, HR, and my peers. My manager and team mates were happy with the work I do. I even found my performance was somewhat above average: I remember days when I was delivering ~10 points of work (1 points represents 1/2 day).The ﬁrst 🚩 red ﬂag was when my manager said multiple times that my salary was high. I did really well in interviews, and already had RSUs from the previous, very well known and much older company, so they agreed to pay me what I want.Long-term it turned out to be NOT a good move, since I received no promotion or salary increase in 2.5 years. See below “Have children? No promotion”The next 🚩 red ﬂag. After being in the company for more than a year I had found that folks with children are less likely to get a promotion. I had no evidence, it was a feeling. Since I had a 6 year old child, I approached my manager with this question, and asked him:- Is it true that engineers with children are less likely to get a promotion?It was a silly question, I sure that this behavior exists in Atlassian, but nobody likes to talk about that. In Atlassian it’s no surprise and my manager said “yes, it’s true”. Just like that, exposing the company to liability.At the time I didn’t take it seriously. I later raised this question to my next manager, he didn’t even bother to escalate this up, it was so obvious. I raised this question with HR and the head of people ops. No response.At later point of time I discovered that other folks also experienced that in Atlassian. Below is screenshots from Blind where somebody failed getting promotion from P4 to P5 because of parental leave:It all looks like action class lawsuit, ofﬁcials should seriously look into Atlassian and investigate what’s going on there. The evidence is screaming, and the company is not playing a fair game. I’m ready to give my testimony.Lesson learned: never join Atlassian or expect promotion when you have children. They don’t like it.At the beginning of this year my wife got the bad news:You are a 43-year-old woman who was recently diagnosed with rectal cancer. After presenting with several months of progressive constipation, you had a colonoscopy performed which revealed a cancerous mass in your rectum. A biopsy of this mass conﬁrmed that it was a form of rectal cancer known as colon adenocarcinomaI would note that there is a rising rate of new colorectal cancer diagnoses in patients younger than 50-years-old in the United States. The reasons for this rise are not clear.Cancer is the new reality. While everyone was enjoying their Christmas and the New Year, we were crying. The stress was so high, I was waking up in the morning with pain in all of my teeth.My wife was devastated, but we quickly get on our feet and started thinking about what to do. I remember the good vibe Atlassian promoted everywhere, in their world-wide all hands, on social networks like LinkedIn. They promised unlimited sick days (spoiler: never able to get what they even promised), I felt that the company is so strong, and my contribution definitely has been great, so I had no doubts they gonna help me. As my previous company would.Here is an example of how Atlassian promoting its unlimited sick days. from LinkedIn leads to a link where you can ﬁnd more info: “best 2021 company” proﬁle looks like:I started working in 2019, at the time they were advertising unlimited sick days in their job postings (at least on Stackoverﬂow where I found them), and actually during the interview, my future manager conﬁrmed that.However, it turned out that they lied. They tricked me into joining the organization by their false promises and I changed my employment from a well-established company to Atlassian, where lies powers everything.Lesson learned: Atlassian doesn’t hesitate to lie. They promise perks that do not even exist. They lie at all levels: managers, HRs, founders.Atlassian is really into (along with “unlimited sick days” scam). While “unlimited PTO” is scam by itself, in Atlassian they’re taking it to the whole new level. Here is how it works:They advertise “unlimited PTO” in their job postings, LinkedIn, etc, pretty much everywhere. Their recruiters sell it, but they never mention it’s up to their managers to decide whether or not they allow you to take your PTO.When I joined, my manager told me exactly how many days I have: “federal holidays + 20 days”, which is considered “quite generous for the US” (exact quotes), but don’t get tricked, because…It’s only when your manager approves that. My experience shows that they do not approve PTOs, and it’s only a lure they use to attract workforce.
When I requested my PTO, the manager just said “no”. Not because I took too much PTO in the past - I haven’t taken any for quite some time. It’s just “no” because they can. He didn’t explain too much, just sent me a link to their policy, where they say how exactly it is “unlimited” - it’s quite limited.The ﬁrst time I asked my manager about using my PTO to take care of my spouse: - Can I take some of my PTO, I should have plenty, to take care of my wife? - I said. - No, it’s not even a question, because you won’t be using it as a vacation, right? Technically you won’t be on PTO, so take a medical leave.It sounds very touching, but I didn’t recognize the trick here. They wanted me to use my medical leave, because they didn’t want to pay for the PTO I earned.I was able to get only 10 days of PTO in 1.5 years. I was requesting it for 2 months. Clariﬁcation as of 9/17 - I was not requesting 2 months of PTO, I wanted to take at least something, and it took me 2 months to get 10 days approved. I was asking for this PTO for more than 2 months, sending emails back and forth, ﬁling tickets, and attending meetings with people ops, managers, manager of my manager. They denied anything beyond 10 days (which was super hard to get). Imagine like hitting the wall every time you ask for it. And you’re getting a link “here is our policy”, instead of PTO:There is a lot you can say from this email:they say “is more generous”. It’s so generous, you can only request 10 days in 1.5 years”however you manager may need to deny your request” - this is how it’s gonna work for you in Atlassian, for “business reasons”, which are (of course) more important that a human life”team short on resources, including R.” - that guy was a manager, who didn’t let me use my hard-earned vacation, took himself 1 month of PTO, came back and gave his notice. He left the company, and S., who is the manager of my manager R., approved that. But didn’t approve vacation I earned. “being out of the ofﬁce” - polite way to say “your manager is on PTO, he took one month with no problem to enjoy time with the family, while you try to do harder to get 10 days approved out of one year and a half, oh and good luck ﬁghting cancer”.Lesson learned: there is a lot of favoritism in the company. If you make good jokes with your manager, you’ll get your vacation approved. If you’re taking care of your loved one, you’re fucked.Let’s be honest, Covid has been a challenging time for all of us with no exception. It’s no surprise engineers from tech companies try to ﬁnd ways to overcome depression and burnout. Below is the only one example of outcry among multitude others you can ﬁnd on Blind:
Founders cultivate fake caring company culture. You see these lies everywhere. Mike (one of the founders) says “No Atlassian [employee] should hesitate to put their well-being on us”. Covid itself was a struggle for lots of people. For me circumstances were much more challenging:Atlassian forced me to move to a new team, with new language and technology I had no experience with, blocked the ways for me going back (I tried and was said “nobody likes those who jump the ship”)All of the above happened at the same timeAnd the “caring company culture” for me turned out in employment termination because I didn’t deliver enough points while I was taking care of my spouse who was barely moving and recovering at home after the surgeryLesson learned: lies are massive. Founders do not hesitate to lie. How they can promise (exact quote) “No Atlassian [employee] should hesitate their well-being on us”, while they terminate employees who struggle with deadly disease? I performed over 100 technical interviews in Atlassian, was recognized by HR team as one of the best interviewers, got their kudos, including monetary recognition at the time my manager already said that he’s not happy with my performance at work. Personally, I like doing interviews and always cared about the candidate experience. At least I tried to make people enjoy the process.However, I stopped doing any interviews, and one of the reasons is hiring law violations in Atlassian. For example, we were hiring one lady for a P4 role. Everyone in interview debrief provided positive technical feedback.However, at the end of the interview manager said: We have just started hiring, and this is one of the ﬁrst candidates we’re interviewing. I don’t want to hire the ﬁrst person out there, just kinda want to compare”. She passed all the technical rounds, everyone said she is strong enough to be a P4 engineer, but they said she’s not a good ﬁt! The coordinator quickly jumped in and saying that the lady “is probably not a good ﬁtnot the right timewe will encourage her to apply the next timeLesson learned: Atlassian managers and HR don’t hesitate to violate the law, they don’t care about employees and candidates. Managers and HRs are covering each other. They’re the kings and queens in this org. ICs and small little people are disposable.They will gaslight you all the way. One of the examples of what my manager said:- What is your plan to be back senior engineer on the team again?They didn’t demote me, and I was still employed as Senior Software Engineer. Actually, it even was in the middle of our treatment, between chemo and radiation, which made things more cruel. They asked this question multiple times.At the same time my manager said about the PTO I earned and cannot use:- I can’t give you PTO, it needs to be approved, we just lost one senior engineer, we can’t afford to lose another one, we have deadlinesNote that he doesn’t challenge the fact that I have PTO, which kinda conﬁrms my point that I had those PTOs earned. He says that they’ve lost senior engineer, and they want me to work without PTO, and pretty much emphasized that their deadlines are more important that deadly disease we were dealing with.“Deadlines” point is bullshit by itself, because the same manager who didn’t approve the use of vacation I earned got himself one month of PTO and left the organization right after that. Lesson learned: yes, they know you earned your vacation. They are well-aware of their 20 days per-year policy they promised. They just don’t let you use it. They gaslight you like you do not belong to the place you call work anymore, regardless of your achievements in the past.Fuck you, people of color in AtlassianMe and my wife are from Slavic community, and by some organizations as people of color. We’re immigrants, my spouse speaks very basic English and needs a translator almost every time she goes to the hospital. We have no parents or any other relatives living in the United States at all. I’m the only one who works in the family, and we have a child.Yes, Atlassian pushed us to the brink of existence. We rent and are taking money out of our emergency fund to cover our basic needs now. The place we rent is basically the only one home we have. We have nowhere to go, the only destination is under the bridge.We live in HCOL area, because we’re kinda locked with our hospitals, surgeons, and other doctors at the moment. It’s going to be more harsh over time, since Atlassian made us pay for the health insurance out of the pocket. In case of a new employment we’ll need to pay new “max out of pocket per year”.Even if you’re software engineer in Atlassian, the chances for you to end up under the bridge are quite high. They don’t care who you are - your color, age, family, health, circumstances don’t matter. They will do damage to your mental health by lying to you about beneﬁts they have. There is a lot of gaslighting, favoritism. Managers take vacation with no questions asked. Employees who struggle with life and death issues get kicked.So don’t get tricked, if you’re still employed - look for other opportunities. If I would only have known they lie about pretty much everything that your life depends on, I would have left them immediately.When they terminate you, they locked you out everywhere right away. They put me in awkward position, and my coworkers think that I’ve been slacking off for quite some time for no reason. I had no chance to say bye and explain what was going on.The reason for locking out my account is to prevent this information to be spread across the organization. They don’t want you to see the truth. Also, remember what our doctor said:I would note that there is a rising rate of new colorectal cancer diagnoses in patients younger than 50-years-old in the United States. The reasons for this rise are not clear.If you’re employed in Atlassian now, you’re vulnerable.Employment termination can happen to anyone, your friend, your loved ones, even child. And it will happen at the time you’re the most vulnerable. “No Atlassian should hesitate to put their well-being on us” is only one of their lies. They cultivate fake caring company culture.You should consider looking for other companies who are very known for taking care of employees during their hard times. Atlassian is simply not the right place for a career. One of my managers (who is/was probably one of your managers) said that “you’re right, in Atlassian they talk the talk, but don’t walk the walkFor everyone out there - I had no chance to say goodbye, so if you’re okay to burn some bridges with this toxic organization, do not hesitate to share the link to this website on your last day. And whoever is leaving last, please shut off the lights.Here is what Atlassian employees think about the company:Lesson learned: your employment termination will happen at the time you’re the most vulnerable, when you or your loved one is between surgeries, ﬁghting cancer, you ran out of money, and have nobody to ask for help.Bonus payment for referencing my friend in the organization - bonus not paid as of the moment of writing.Bonus payment for the previous ﬁnancial year. Everyone who made it to the end of August if eligible. Payment for unused vacation. I’m going to ﬁght them in the court. They said I have 20 days, they said it to everyone on our team. We gonna invite you folks, especially those of you who were in Statuspage team to the court, you will testify and conﬁrm that. We’ll notify you on class action lawsuit. For know, while (and if) you are employed, collect the evidence. More is better. See contact information below.My employment - they terminated me at the time when I could use the vacation I earned, at the time when I could use “30 days no questions asked” leave they say employees have, unlimited sick days they advertise employees have. They forced me into “working” while not approving vacation and other leaves.How the real help looks like when you’re dealing with cancer in AtlassianI took FMLA, which is paid from my taxes. Atlassian can’t prevent you from taking FMLA, it’s illegal in United States.Atlassian put me on 6-week Performance Improvement Plan (PIP) right after I got back from FMLA. They ﬁred me being two weeks into PIP.The only help I received from Atlassian is 10 days of PTO approval in one and a half years.Lesson learned: no, they don’t help at all. Nothing. Like literally N-O-T-H-I-N-G. Only partial PTO approval of 10 days was their “help”. Am I supposed to be grateful for the 10 days of PTO approval while in reality I had earned 20+ days?Atlassian offered me 6 weeks of severance with conditions that 1) I don’t sue them and 2) I will not share the truth about what had happened. You can imagine how families are desperate in Atlassian, and can take that money, while neo-feudals like Mike and Scott take advantage of their circumstances and silence them.Lesson learned: Atlassian founders Mike and Scott build fake caring company culture while in reality they fail, try to hide it, and offer severance packages to silence people.Issues I’m dealing with because of AtlassianIf I only knew I don’t have beneﬁts of PTO and Unlimited Sick Days as they advertised pretty much everywhere, I would have taken unpaid leave, or left the company, or most probably would have left the company well in advance before it all even started. The issue with them is that they lie so much, you never know where is the truth.So now we have to deal with the second surgery at the end of the month. Probably something else is going to come up, short hospital stay, or nurse visiting us at home like it was before, and I will definitely need to buy COBRA. In case of a new employment and insurance I’ll have to pay the second family max out of pocket in a year.It’s about money, maybe not too much for Mike and Scott, but when you’re dealing with cancer you pay well above your insurance pays. Food supplies, for example, aren’t covered. Uber for 30 days to the hospital while you’re on radiation and back because you cannot drive. Extra colostomy bags so you can change them more frequently.Atlassian introduced lots of levels of uncertainty and complications to our treatment, Atlassian the worst employer ever, because they’re unpredictable. You never know what to expect.Good news is that the prognosis is optimistic and we’re recovering. I’m just blaming myself for being dumb enough to listen to what Mike says “No Atlassian should hesitate to put their well-being on us”, dumb enough to trust their fake caring culture. Don’t trust them.Communication in Atlassian and about the only company valueThey are aggressive while talking to you. Literally, they raise their voice, and use every chance to push you to the brink. For example, their manager S., said “” - exact quote, when I was asking for PTO for multiple months, the PTO I earned. I think this is the real company value - “Atlassian owes you nothing”.When I tried to explain him what’s going on, he said “this is not the answer, say yes or no, will you be able to be at work at all times?”. I don’t know where they found these interrogative techniques, they’re definitely not educated and there is ZERO respect to employees, they do what they want and feel above the law.Be sure that Atlassian top management is well aware of everything mentioned here. They people ops, top management knew all of that well in advance. They had opportunity to establish a healthy dialog. I put a lot of effort into explaining what’s going on. I asked for their understanding, empathy, and compassion multiple times, in multiple meetings.They just prefer the other way - intimidate, silence, raise their voice, disrespect, lie, and dispose you.What other people thinkIf you ask Atlassian executives and raise the question about non-existing beneﬁts, they might want to play this off and claim something like “this employee didn’t want to take advantage of options provided to him”, or “refused to take the leave we have”, or “has long history of under-delivering”. This is not true, don’t trust them. If you’re willing to hear the second side of the story, you can always reach out to me by email speciﬁed in the “Contact” section below. You are encouraged to contact with what they say, and will honestly explain if it’s true or false.Evidence shows that there is plenty of law violations in all countries. While you’re in, collect the information that can be used in class action lawsuit. You need screenshots, notes after meetings with your managers, recordings (consult your lawyer ﬁrst, recordings might be illegal, like in California, for example), emails. I’m happy to share the information I have with your lawyer and ready to cooperate. See contact information below.Atlassian thinks they’re above the law. However, evidence is creaming, and they will pay a big price for their consecutive and deliberate law violations.Atlassian will never change unless we take action. As of today there is no apology, managers are still employed in the org, practices are all the same, nothing changed. Have your story? Don’t hide it. It can be published right here, on this website. See contact information below. Please use throw-away email account if you want to remain anonymous.You are not alone, share your story and we’ll make them accountable for their actions, law violations, and irreversible damage they made to us and to our families., ex-Atlassian manager with a child, employment was terminated with the positive feedback received, conﬁrming it is systemic issue. The document also reveals Atlassian management practices, like pushing people into Off Year so they can’t leave a team - see here Another ex-Atlassian says “I joined Atlassian in 2016 and resigned this year…” - story is coming soonSome folks say the article should be read with grain of salt. It shouldn’t. So I decided to put Q&As to clarify some points. Atlassian fella says:meaning me - author of this story] forget to mention the 30 odd days of “no questions asked” special leave we got over the past 2 years.^ This leave is a lie, I was never given an option of taking these 30 days of “no questions asked” special leave. It’s a lie lie lie. I can’t emphasize it more, it simply doesn’t exist. Maybe it’s somewhere in Conﬂuence or (c). There is just no such leave, I checked it for you, and now I’m out. I had wouldn’t get terminated if Atlassian has such a leave. Some details from my setup are:End of FMLA - right before the ﬁrst surgery (used my last days of FMLA)If I only could have this 30 days of “no questions asked” leave approved, I wouldn’t have got terminated at all. I’m adding this comment on 9/17, as you can see it’s much less than 30 days.This is a kind of lie you deal with in Atlassian. They say they have PTOs, Unlimited Sick Days, some kind of 30 days “no questions asked” leave. But in reality it’s up to their approval. If they say it’s there, you should know it for sure - probably it just doesn’t exist. It’s a lie.The question you should ask yourself - if they advertise “unlimited sick days” and “unlimited PTO”, why do they have “30 days of no questions leave” at all? They introduce these absurd perks to show fake love and trick folks into switching jobs and work for Atlassian.If this leave exists, resume my employment right now, because my termination was wrongful. And if you’re reading this text, my dear friend, my employment hasn’t been resumed, and nobody even apologized.Why didn’t you simply quit when you found Atlassian doesn’t treat you right?You never know what to expect - they promised Unlimited sick days, they promised Unlimited PTO, they promised “30 days no questions asked” leave, but when you request a leave, your manager says “I will check with HR what we can do”, and it turns out that we don’t have it. This exact manager says that “Atlassian talk the talk, but don’t walk the walk”. I have conﬁdence the manager will have no problem conﬁrming that in a court, since lying in a court is a criminal offense. And not lying is just testifying against the company with no consequences. Also, you hear how Atlassian advertise their coolness everywhere, internally and externally. See LinkedIn screenshots above, links are still active - you can check it yourself. Employees are sure the company will support them, but they’re wrong about the company.There are companies who support their employees, but Atlassian is not that company. I checked that for you. You can imagine how I regret joining Atlassian, and regret I was lured into the job by their false promises. My previous company is one of the companies who actually support people, and by sharing the story I hope the next person out there will make a right choice and will not join.This dude didn’t tell the other side of the story, the entire thing looks confusingHow am I supposed to tell the side? They tried to silence me for a reason with a severance package knowing that in my critical circumstances I’d accept that. As for other side, we can hear it only from the other side. Also, I’m working on details of the story, so you have timeline and other info that will make things a little bit more clear. I had to put this website real quick to ﬁght back. It’s going to be better over the time, we’ll hopefully hear the other side, and I will have a chance to comment.I know all the people involved in this story and can tell you this is not a very fair account of what happened… the story as told is far from completeI understand that the story which is presented here is incomplete to some degree. I highlighted critical points that are most important for folks who are in Atlassian and still believe their b/s, and who are outside of Atlassian and considering to join.In 3 days (the domain registered 3 days ago) it’s almost impossible for a single person to organize nine months of battling cancer, working and dealing with toxic managers, peopleops, HRs in the company. If you’re willing more completeness, I will tell you what you feel when you deal with cancer.One day, because of aggressive medication, half of the face of my beloved wife got paralyzed. You can imagine what feelings a woman can experience looking at the mirror.The other day my wife said “It’s so nice when you don’t have nausea. So nice to have appetite again. It’s like coming back to life again. I just love these days”. She said that on Saturday, because she doesn’t take any medication on weekends.Another day one of the managers was saying how I am probably “taking advantage of the company”. That night my spouse was vomiting all night, and I had no sleep, and had to work and ﬁght again and again to get my PTOs approved.Did you know that we were struggling with a weight loss, and couldn’t afford to lose more than 5 pounds, because for us it would mean the end of the battle? At the time my manager said I can’t get PTOs because we have deadlines.Have you ever felt helpless, like you can’t do anything, do you know how it feels? Will you ever be able to handle a fraction of that stress? How about adding another layer of Atlassian sauce to make this whole experience even worse.Have you ever thought what happens when your loved one comes back home after chemo, and you have no right to get sick, but somehow you managed to get sick with high temperature and the only person who is not sick is your 7 year old child? You have no relatives in this country, and you don’t have any support from the company you’ve worked for. Moreover, they’re trying to terminate you.Have you ever signed End-of-Life paperwork with a person you love? What if somebody at work at the same time says “what’s your plan to be back senior engineer on the team?”.Have you ever dreamed of the end of a chemo treatment? Have you ever fucking celebrated that?However, I encourage you, my friend to reach out from an anonymous email and let me know what is the next important thing I have to “accurate portray”. I will do it for you, and if you know me personally, I will prioritize that. As of today nobody reached out to show where exactly this story is incomplete and what important details I am missing.I think the gist is 1) wife got cancer 2) he took leave to help 3) he wanted to keep supporting / get more time off 4) company didn’t accept that, and moved to terminate. Seems pretty… normal? Not really sure what Atlassian is doing wrong hereAtlassian is lying. That’s why you see Pinocchio theme with big noses here. “They talk the talk, but don’t walk the walk” ← this is what one of my managers said, and he’s on Atlassian side. I blame them for their lies. They tricked me into joining the organization with beneﬁts that don’t even exist. They promote beneﬁts that do not exist. They pretty much made my shitty times of caregiving even more worse, terrible. They did damage to my mental health because of the lies. I will have to deal with that for years to come only because they lied.It wouldn’t be a problem if it’s a fair game. Like, you got cancer - fuck you, goodbye. I would accept that. But saying that “take it easy bro, we’ll take care of you” and terminating you when you’re the most vulnerable… is beyond inhumane.They have money and will sue youI’m at the point when I’m selling my assets to support us, second car, taking money out of my 401k, and other accounts. At the moment my bank account is almost empty, much less than what I had when I relocated to United States, and I had only $9k back then. My pants is what they can possibly get. You’re pretty much broke when you have serious medical issues in the US. You’re in debt and highly likely will go bankrupt.Thanks for asking. With this kind of disease you can’t really tell long-term. However, the prognosis is optimistic for a stage 3 cancer. There is (hopefully) one surgery left at the end of the month, which (I don’t want to downplay the surgery, but) shouldn’t be hard - this is what doctors say. And hopefully, it’s going to be it, the end of the treatment (and start of maintenance mode).Atlassian ﬁred me right before the end of my setup of failure. The next month or so we plan and hope to start living our normal lives.Spread the word, spread the information online, use hash tags. When you ever see the pictures of founders, don’t hesitate do ﬁx the images with drawing them all big noses for their lies, lack of empathy and compassion.Links online, upvote if you can: - /r/progamming subreddit (thanks for submitting to /r/programming!) - (thanks for submitting to HN)Downvote if you can: - Atlassian Glassdoor rating is 4.6, and it shouldn’t be above 29/16 - added few comments about what other people think (usernames masked)9/17 - added issues I’m dealing with because of Atlassian9/18 - added fuck you people of color in AtlassianThat’s not it, folks. More to come. I have lots of other information, and will release more details soon * * *
A multiple exposure portrait of Anastasia Vlasova at home last month.
The Facebook Files
Facebook Knows Instagram Is Toxic for Teen Girls, Company Documents Show
Its own in-depth research shows a significant teen mental-health issue that Facebook plays down in public
A multiple exposure portrait of Anastasia Vlasova at home last month.
About a year ago, teenager Anastasia Vlasova started seeing a therapist. She had developed an eating disorder, and had a clear idea of what led to it: her time on Instagram.
She joined the platform at 13, and eventually was spending three hours a day entranced by the seemingly perfect lives and bodies of the ﬁtness inﬂuencers who posted on the app.
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Apple today held its California Streaming keynote, during which it unveiled the iPhone 13 as well as updated versions of the Apple Watch and iPad mini. But one, seemingly minor product announcement has caused a stir in the developer community: the new full software keyboard that Apple is adding to the Apple Watch.
It was just last month that Kosta Eleftheriou, the developer of FlickType, announced that his swipe-based keyboard for the blind would be pulled off the App Store over objections by Apple. Its reasoning was unclear, with Eleftheriou saying that Apple had begun rejecting updates for the app because it required full system access, a fact that Eleftheriou disputed, saying that it still worked without the permissions.
A separate version for the Apple Watch would remain, but then Apple pulled that one as well, telling Eleftheriou that keyboards aren’t allowed on the Apple Watch.
Now Apple has announced its own, nearly-identical keyboard for the Apple Watch — and seven years after the smartwatch was introduced, no less. Eleftheriou believes there’s no coincidence here. “So now we know,” he wrote in a tweet. “See you in court, [Apple].” Eleftheriou has already sued Apple for blocking his iPhone-based keyboard, a move he argues is anti-competitive.
Sherlocking — Apple has in the past taken ideas from the developer community and built them into its products. There’s actually a name for it — “Sherlocked,” or the phenomenon where Apple takes a popular third-party tool and renders it unnecessary by copying it directly. It’s happened many times over, but under the current climate where sentiment by developers is not in Apple’s favor, it looks particularly bad.
Being based in California, Apple’s move against FlickType could be in direct violation of the state’s Unfair Competition Law (UCL), which is broadly written but forbids unfair business acts and allows the court to order injunctions to prevent unfair competition. Apple doesn’t allow developers to offer their apps outside the App Store, meaning they have to follow its rules and are always at its mercy.
It’s under the UCL law that Apple was recently forced by a judge to change its App Store rules and allow developers to link to outside payment methods, where they don’t have to pay it a commission. Developers argue Apple’s demand that they use its payment method is harmful to competition as they might get a better deal from another payment processor if it was allowed, and the fees, in general, harm small businesses.
Changing tides — Developers used to be much more deferential towards Apple for creating slick tools and a safe marketplace for selling apps. But now they’ve become embittered over Apple’s strict, byzantine system of rules, and the 15-30 percent tax it charges on in-app sales.
The company isn’t the small, rebellious upstart it was once, but a $2.5 trillion behemoth that brings in gobs of cash. Developers cannot as easily absorb the costs Apple charges and are always at risk of losing their business, as in the case of FlickType. Apple’s demands no longer feel fair or reasonable, and critics say that its defense that it’s ensuring a safe environment for consumers is cover for it to continue making billions off the App Store. It’s believed Apple generates more than $20 billion in revenue from the App Store each year.
Please Stop Closing Forums And Moving People To DiscordThey are not the same thing, and will never be the same thing
A few days ago Eurogamer closed their forums, bringing to an end over 20 years of community discussion. The site explained the move like sites and companies always do (only a few are still using them), and it made sense the way it always does (that’s a lot of money for not much gain), but that doesn’t mean the process itself isn’t something that sucks.
The forums were closed on September 10, with Eurogamer’s decision explained as:I am sorry to say that we are going to turn off access to the forum on 10th September 2021. The forum has been a long-standing part of Eurogamer, and at its peak welcomed thousands of active contributors each day.Sadly, times change and the way people communicate also has changed. Traditional forums are no longer a popular place for people to come together to talk, and have been replaced in popularity with more modern community platforms like Discord, Twitter, and Twitch.Due to this, our forum community has declined over the years to the point where there are only a handful of people left actively using the forum. This makes it difﬁcult for us to spend resources keeping the forum running. You will have noticed how little attention the forum has had in terms of updates and changes over the past few years, which is a direct result of them not being used so much.Readers are then urged to move to the site’s Discord, because of course they would be. Now, I don’t want to pick on Eurogamer here, as like I said up top, in every individual case companies and sites have their reasons for doing this. The most frequently cited are the fact that forums need to be maintained (true!) and that people’s conversational habits have changed, with forum use dwindling (also true!).But I simply do not care, because a) I don’t work for these companies, and b) I’m more interested in looking at the long-term damage this is doing to the internet. Forums and Discord are apples and oranges. Users aren’t being moved from one similar thing to another, they’re being shifted to platforms with fundamentally different ways of approaching discussions.G/O Media may get a commissionDiscord is great for talking in the moment. It’s a place for real-time conversations (or at lease those a few hours old if they’re not as busy), a fancy way to manage multiple chat rooms and voice comms, and if that’s what you want—and millions of people around the world do, for loads of needs and wants—then great!Forums aren’t the same though. They’re nothing like it. Forums are more deliberate, more considered, and while they’re far from perfect—I’m sure you can post a billion examples of people being neither deliberate nor considered on forums—the point is that they’re more permanent. Forums create a record, an archive we can search through, so that whenever we want to revisit issues, or ﬁnd help with a problem, or see what was happening during a certain time, we can do that. There’s a paper trail, and while sometimes that leads to embarrassing takes on tv shows and game reveals, other times it’s providing an enormous help with technical issues or parts of a game you’re stuck on.Discord simply can’t provide that. It’s a river running in real-time, and while it does have search functions, the way the whole app is structured means you’re simply never going to get the same levels of detailed discussion or archived information as we can get from forums. If places want to open a Discord and run that as something else, then cool, but using it as a replacement for forums is a disaster.While every company closing forums and moving people to Discord in 2021 might have their reasons, if this trend keeps up we’re going to look around in 2026, not be able to ﬁnd a whole ton of cool and/or interesting stuff, and discover to our horror that, somehow, the internet had got even worse.
As ﬁled with the Securities and Exchange Commission on September 17, 2021.
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
As soon as practicable after the effective date of this registration statement.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or Securities Act, check the following box: ☐
If this Form is ﬁled to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment ﬁled pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment ﬁled pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated ﬁler, an accelerated ﬁler, a non-accelerated ﬁler, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated ﬁler,” “accelerated ﬁler,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised ﬁnancial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐
Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered
Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the amount of the registration fee in accordance with Rule 457(o) of the Securities Act.
Includes the aggregate offering price of additional shares that the underwriters have the option to purchase, if any.
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall ﬁle a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.
We are a remote-only company. Accordingly, we do not maintain a headquarters. For purposes of compliance with applicable requirements of the Securities Act and Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, any stockholder communication required to be sent to our principal executive ofﬁces may be directed to the agent for service of process named above, or to the email address: email@example.com.
The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. Neither we nor the selling stockholder may sell these securities until the registration statement ﬁled with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and neither we nor the selling stockholder are soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
This is an initial public offering of shares of Class A common stock of GitLab Inc. We are selling shares of our Class A common stock and the selling stockholder named in this prospectus is selling shares of our Class A common stock. We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of the shares by the selling stockholder.
Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for our Class A common stock. It is currently estimated that the initial public offering price per share will be between $ and $ . We have applied to list the Class A common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “GTLB.”
We have two classes of authorized common stock, Class A common stock and Class B common stock. The rights of the holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock are identical, except with respect to voting and conversion rights. Each share of Class A common stock is entitled to one vote per share. Each share of Class B common stock is entitled to 10 votes per share and is convertible into one share of Class A common stock. Outstanding shares of Class B common stock will represent approximately % of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock immediately following the completion of this offering, with our directors, executive ofﬁcers, and beneﬁcial owners of 5% or greater of our outstanding capital stock, and their respective afﬁliates, holding approximately % of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock immediately following the completion of this offering, assuming no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares.
We have applied to list our Class A common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “GTLB.”
We are an “emerging growth company” as deﬁned under the federal securities laws and, as such, we have elected to comply with certain reduced reporting requirements for this prospectus and may elect to do so in future ﬁlings. See “Prospectus Summary—Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company.”
See “Risk Factors” on page 18 to read about factors you should consider before buying shares of our Class A common stock.
Proceeds, before expenses, to usProceeds to the Selling Stockholder (before expenses)
See the section titled “Underwriting” for a description of the compensation payable to the underwriters.
We have granted the underwriters an option to purchase up to an additional shares of our Class A common stock, at the initial public offering price less the underwriting discount
The Securities and Exchange Commission and state securities regulators have not approved or disapproved these securities, or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense
The underwriters expect to deliver the shares of Class A common stock to purchasers on , 2021.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of OperationsMaterial U. S. Federal Income Tax Consequences to Non-U.S. Holders of Our Class A Common StockWhere You Can Find Additional Information
Through and including , 2021 (the 25th day after the date of this prospectus), all dealers effecting transactions in these securities, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This is in addition to a dealer’s obligation to deliver a prospectus when acting as an underwriter and with respect to an unsold allotment or subscription.
Neither we, the selling stockholder, nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. Neither we, the selling stockholder, nor the underwriters take any responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We and the selling stockholder are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of Class A common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or of any sale of the shares of Class A common stock. Our business, operating results, ﬁnancial condition and prospects may have changed since the date of this prospectus.
For investors outside the United States: Neither we, the selling stockholder, nor any of the underwriters have taken any action that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. You are required to inform yourselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus.
The following summary highlights selected information that is presented in greater detail elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all the information you should consider before investing in our Class A common stock. You should carefully read this prospectus in its entirety before investing in our Class A common stock, including the sections titled “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” and our consolidated ﬁnancial statements and the accompanying notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our ﬁscal year end is January 31, and our ﬁscal quarters end on April 30, July 31, October 31, and January 31. Our ﬁscal years ended January 31, 2020 and 2021 are referred to herein as ﬁscal 2020 and ﬁscal 2021, respectively.
We believe in an innovative world powered by software. To realize this vision, we pioneered The DevOps Platform, a fundamentally new approach to DevOps consisting of a single codebase and interface with a uniﬁed data model. The DevOps Platform allows everyone to contribute to build better software rapidly, efﬁciently, and securely.
Today, every industry, business, and function within a company is dependent on software. To remain competitive and survive, nearly all companies must digitally transform and become experts at building and delivering software.
GitLab is The DevOps Platform, a single application that brings together development, operations, IT, security, and business teams to deliver desired business outcomes. Having all teams on a single application with a single interface represents a step change in how organizations plan, build, secure, and deliver software.
The DevOps Platform accelerates our customers’ ability to create business value and innovate by reducing their software development cycle times from weeks to minutes. It removes the need for point tools and delivers enhanced operational efﬁciency by eliminating manual work, increasing productivity, and creating a culture of innovation and velocity. The DevOps Platform also embeds security earlier into the development process, improving our customers’ software security, quality, and overall compliance.
DevOps is the set of practices that combines software development (dev) and IT operations (ops). It aims to allow teams to collaborate and work together to shorten the development lifecycle and evolve from delivering software on a slow, periodic basis to rapid, continuous updates. When DevOps started, each team bought their own tools in isolation, leading to a “Bring Your Own DevOps” environment. The next evolution was standardizing company-wide on the same tool for each stage across the DevOps lifecycle. However, these tools were not connected, leading to a “Best in Class DevOps” environment. Companies tried to remedy this fragmentation and inefﬁciency by manually integrating these DevOps point solutions together deﬁning the next phase: “DIY DevOps.”
At the same time, the faster delivery of software required more DevOps tools per project. Increased adoption of a microservice architecture led to more projects. The combination caused an exponential increase in the number of tool-project integrations. This has often led to poor user experiences, higher costs, and increased time to deliver new software. As a result, business outcomes often failed and the potential for DevOps was never fully realized. In short, an entirely new platform for DevOps was needed. We pioneered The DevOps Platform to solve this problem.
The DevOps Platform replaces the DIY DevOps approach. It enables organizations to realize the full potential of DevOps and become software-led businesses. It spans all stages of the DevOps lifecycle, from project planning, or Plan, to source code management, or Create, to continuous integration, or Verify, to static and dynamic application security testing, or Secure, to packaging artifacts, or Package, to
continuous delivery and deployment, or Release, to conﬁguring infrastructure for optimal deployment, or Conﬁgure, to monitoring it for incidents, or Monitor, to protecting the production deployment, or Protect, and managing the whole cycle with value stream analytics, or Manage. It also allows customers to manage and secure their applications across any cloud through a single platform.
The DevOps Platform has broad use across organizations. It helps product and business teams to work with developers to introduce new features and drive successful business outcomes. It helps Chief Technology Ofﬁcers, or CTOs, modernize their DevOps environment and drive developer productivity. It helps Chief Information Ofﬁcers, or CIOs, adopt microservices and cloud native development to improve the efﬁciency, scale, and performance of their software architecture. It helps Chief Information Security Ofﬁcers, or CISOs, reduce security vulnerabilities and deliver software faster. It helps organizations attract and retain top talent by allowing people to focus more time on their job and less time managing tools.
The majority of our customers begin by using Create and Verify. Developers use Create to collaborate together on the same code base without conﬂicting or accidentally overwriting each other’s changes. Create also maintains a running history of software contributions from each developer to allow for version control. Teams use Verify to ensure changes to code go through deﬁned quality standards with automatic testing and reporting. We believe serving as this system of record for code and our high engagement with developers is a competitive advantage in realizing our single application vision as it creates interdependence and adoption across more stages of the DevOps lifecycle, such as Package, Secure, and Release. As more stages are addressed within a single application, the beneﬁts of The DevOps Platform are enhanced.
We are committed to advancing The DevOps Platform. Our dual ﬂywheel development strategy leverages both development spend from our research and development team members as well as community contributions via our open core business model. By leveraging the power of each, we create a virtuous cycle where more contributions lead to more features, which leads to more users, leading back to more contributions.
We emphasize iteration to drive rapid innovation in our development strategy. This iterative approach has enabled us to release a new version of our software on the 22 day of every month for 118 months in a row as of July 31, 2021. This is also due in part to our over 2,600 contributors in our global, open source community as of July 31, 2021. GitLab team members also use The DevOps Platform to power our own DevOps lifecycle. By doing so, we beneﬁt from the inherent advantages of using a single application. We leverage these learnings to establish a rapid feedback loop to continually and rapidly improve The DevOps Platform.
We have been a 100% remote workforce since inception and, as of July 31, 2021, had approximately 1,350 team members in over 65 countries. Operating remotely allows us access to a global talent pool that enables us to hire talented team members, regardless of location, providing a strong competitive advantage. We foster a culture of results built on our core values of collaboration, results, efﬁciency, diversity-inclusion-belonging, iteration, and transparency. We aim to be transparent to build alignment and afﬁnity with our community and customers. This is exempliﬁed through our corporate handbook, or the Handbook, our central repository that details how we run GitLab and is shared with the world. It consists of over 2,000 webpages of text, including our strategy and roadmap. We welcome everyone, both inside and outside of the company, to contribute to the Handbook.
We have an open core business model. We offer a free tier with a large number of features to encourage use of The DevOps Platform, solicit contributions, and serve as targeted lead generation for paid customers. We also offer two paid subscription tiers with access to additional features that are more relevant to managers, directors, and executives. Our subscription plans are available as a self-managed offering where customers typically download to run The DevOps Platform in their own account in the public cloud, and also a Software-as-a-Service, or SaaS, offering which is managed by GitLab and hosted in our account in the public cloud.
The DevOps Platform is used globally by organizations of all sizes across a broad range of industries. To reach, engage and help drive success at each, our sales force is ampliﬁed by our strategic hyperscaler partnerships, including Google Cloud and Amazon Web Services, or AWS, who offer The DevOps Platform on their marketplaces. We also beneﬁt from strategic alliance partnerships, which resell The DevOps Platform to large enterprise customers, and our strong channel partnerships ranging from large global systems integrators to regional digital transformation specialists, and volume resellers.
We employ a land-and-expand sales strategy. Our customer journey typically begins with developers and then expands to more teams and up to senior executive buyers. Our Dollar-Based Net Retention Rate was 148% and 152% as of January 31, 2021 and July 31, 2021, respectively. Our cohort of customers generating $5,000 or more in annual recurring revenue, or ARR, which we refer to as Base Customers, grew from 1,662 as of January 31, 2020 to 2,745 as of January 31, 2021 and 3,632 as of July 31, 2021.
Our business has experienced rapid growth. We generated revenue of $81.2 million and $152.2 million in ﬁscal 2020 and 2021, respectively, representing growth of 87%. We generated revenue of $63.9 million and $108.1 million for the six months ended July 31, 2020 and July 31, 2021, respectively, representing year over year growth of 69%. During this period, we continued to invest in growing our business to capitalize on our market opportunity. Our net loss was $130.7 million, $192.2 million, and $69.0 million in ﬁscal 2020, ﬁscal 2021, and the six months ended July 31, 2021, respectively. Our operating cash ﬂow margin, which we deﬁne as operating cash ﬂows as a percentage of revenue, was (74.1)%, (48.4)%, and (35.8)% for ﬁscal 2020, ﬁscal 2021, and the six months ended July 31, 2021, respectively. Our gross proﬁt was 88%, 88%, and 87% for ﬁscal 2020, ﬁscal 2021, and the six months ended July 31, 2021, respectively.
Important industry and technology trends for our business include:
Digital transformation driven by internal software development is a corporate imperative today irrespective of industry. We are in the midst of a generational disruption whereby non-digital native companies are seeking to become software-led businesses.
Modern software development requires companies to embrace both DevOps and DevSecOps. DevOps aims to allow teams to collaborate and work together to shorten the development lifecycle and provide continuous delivery of high quality software. Increasingly, DevSecOps, which combines IT security practices into DevOps, is being adopted to embed security best practices earlier in the development process to enhance security while also maintaining velocity.
Faster time to market through cycle time compression is key to business success. Reducing the cycle times to deliver new software from months to weeks, hours, or minutes is critical to organizational objectives and maintaining industry competitiveness.
Companies are embracing microservices to enhance their speed and efﬁciency. Companies are modularizing applications into smaller components through microservices to release new features or amend existing features faster.
Companies have embraced a cloud-ﬁrst strategy to scale their DevOps initiatives, providing teams with faster, cheaper, and more ﬂexible infrastructure that doesn’t require manual overhead.
To streamline efﬁciency organizations are consolidating point tools and adopting full platform services.
Best-in-class platforms are essential to hiring the right developers. It is a strategic priority for organizations to invest in hiring the best developer talent. In order to hire the best developers, it is essential to have a DevOps platform with good documentation, open transparency, and an engaging community.
Existing approaches to DevOps suffer from some or all of the following limitations:
Built to only address certain stages of the DevOps lifecycle. The underlying architectures and codebases of point products were originally designed to address discrete parts of the DevOps lifecycle.
DIY DevOps products often have much slower software cycle release times that can be measured in weeks or months instead of minutes or hours.
We believe DIY DevOps makes teams less productive as they spend more of their time managing integrations across their tools rather than building new software and products.
DIY DevOps results in managing relationships, licensing, and procurement across a number of vendors. This results in excess direct costs to the organization. Further, this approach creates indirect costs due to lost visibility and transparency resulting from numerous handoffs across stages.
DIY DevOps requires discrete tools across development, operations and security teams often leading to lower quality code with more security vulnerabilities.
Platforms with features optimized to run more efﬁciently on certain clouds limit the ability for organizations to embrace a true multi-cloud strategy.
Inability to govern, automate, measure, and analyze leads to poor compliance. DIY DevOps creates a lack of ability to oversee the fulsome process and to analyze and automate the DevOps process as one cohesive unit.
consists of a single codebase and interface with a uniﬁed data model. It is purpose-built to address every stage of the DevOps lifecycle:
Helps organizations optimize and analyze the ﬂow of work through the full DevOps value stream.
Helps teams collaboratively plan together in the same system, which enables faster and more efﬁcient work in all other stages of The DevOps Platform.
Helps teams design, develop and securely manage code and project data from a single distributed version control system to enable rapid iteration and delivery of business value.
Helps software teams fully embrace Continuous Integration, or CI, to automate the builds, integration and veriﬁcation of their code.
Enables teams to manage the necessary components of their applications and dependencies, manage containers, and build artifacts with ease.
Provides a host of up to date security testing environments to assure users deliver sage, secure, and compliant software. These environments include Static Application Security Testing, or SAST, Dynamic Application Security Testing, or DAST, Fuzz Testing, Container Scanning, and Dependency Scanning.
Helps automate the release and delivery of applications, shortening the delivery lifecycle, streamlining manual processes, and accelerating team velocity.
Helps teams to conﬁgure and manage their application environments.
Provides feedback in the form of errors, traces, metrics, logs, and alerts to help reduce the severity and frequency of incidents so that users can release software frequently with conﬁdence.
Provides cloud native protections, including uniﬁed policy management, container scanning, and container network and host security.
The DevOps Platform accelerates our customers’ ability to create business value and innovate by reducing their software development cycle times from weeks to minutes. It removes the need for point tools and delivers enhanced operational efﬁciency by eliminating manual work, increasing productivity, and creating a culture of innovation and velocity. The DevOps Platform also embeds security earlier into the development process, improving our customers’ software security, quality, and overall compliance.
streamline workﬂows and processes, and enhance overall productivity and efﬁciency;
enhance their innovation and revenue growth due to faster time to market;
increase security by ﬁnding and correcting security vulnerabilities in software earlier or eliminating inefﬁciencies in the software development process altogether;
more easily log, track, and trace different steps across the DevOps lifecycle to better understand governance and improve their compliance posture;
attract world-class talent and boost team member morale, resulting in greater productivity by spending more time building, deploying, and securing software, and less time managing, integrating, and triaging across different tools;
reduce costs by enhancing productivity, consolidating point tools, and eliminating integrations; and
embrace the beneﬁts of allowing our customers to have consistent compliance and value stream analytics while using multiple clouds.
Our business beneﬁts from the following competitive strengths:
The DevOps Platform is purpose-built to address every stage of the DevOps lifecycle as a single application, acting as a system of record for code and the key starting point from which all subsequent workﬂows in the DevOps lifecycle extend;
our dual ﬂywheel development strategy leverages development spend and community contributions. It creates a virtuous cycle where more contributions leads to more features, which leads to more users, leading back to more contributions;
we emphasize iteration to drive rapid innovation in our development strategy. This has enabled us to release a new version of our software on the 22nd day of every month for 118 months in a row as of July 31, 2021;
our large open source installed base allows us to efﬁciently identify and obtain new paying customers;
The DevOps Platform maintains full feature parity and the same single application experience across any cloud environment;
we are agnostic as to who we serve, how we sell, and where we deploy; and
we are a pioneer and thought leader in all-remote work which enhances our brand with customers and team members.
Today, we believe the addressable market opportunity for the DevOps Platform is approximately $40 billion. To estimate our current addressable market we have categorized companies of what we view as adequate scale into tiers based off of employee count as reported by S&P Global. We then multiply these cohorts by the average annual recurring revenue from the top 25% of customers in each of these categories as of January 31, 2021. Given the wide applicability of our platform, we believe we are well suited to grow our market opportunity over time.
According to Gartner, the total addressable market for Global Infrastructure Software is estimated to be $328 billion by the end of 2021 and $458 billion by the end of 2024. We believe that we can serve $43 billion of this market by the end of 2021 and $55 billion by the end of 2024. We calculated these ﬁgures by determining the markets currently addressed by the most common use cases for our platform and summing their estimated sizes as reported by Gartner.
We intend to continue making significant investments in sales and marketing, research and development, and our partner ecosystem to drive our growth. Key elements of our strategy include:
advance our feature maturity across more stages of the DevOps lifecycle;
grow and invest in our partner network; and
Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those in the section titled “Risk Factors” immediately following this prospectus summary. These risks include the following:
Our business and operations have experienced rapid growth, and if we do not appropriately manage future growth, if any, or are unable to improve our systems, processes and controls, our business, ﬁnancial condition, results of operations, and prospects will be adversely affected.
Our recent growth may not be indicative of our future growth, and we may not be able to sustain our revenue growth rate in the future. Our growth also makes it difﬁcult to evaluate our future prospects and may increase the risk that we will not be successful.
We have a history of losses, anticipate increases in our operating expenses in the future, and may not achieve or sustain profitability on a consistent basis. If we cannot achieve and sustain profitability, our business, ﬁnancial condition, and operating results may be adversely affected.
While analyzing the phone of a Saudi activist infected with NSO Group’s Pegasus spyware, we discovered a zero-day zero-click exploit against iMessage. The exploit, which we call FORCEDENTRY, targets Apple’s image rendering library, and was effective against Apple iOS, MacOS and WatchOS devices.
We determined that the mercenary spyware company NSO Group used the vulnerability to remotely exploit and infect the latest Apple devices with the Pegasus spyware. We believe that FORCEDENTRY has been in use since at least February 2021.
The Citizen Lab disclosed the vulnerability and code to Apple, which has assigned the FORCEDENTRY vulnerability CVE-2021-30860 and describes the vulnerability as “processing a maliciously crafted PDF may lead to arbitrary code execution.”
Today, September 13th, Apple is releasing an update that patches CVE-2021-30860. We urge readers to immediately update all Apple devices.
Devices affected by CVE-2021-30860 per Apple:
All iPhones with iOS versions prior to 14.8, All Mac computers with operating system versions prior to OSX Big Sur 11.6, Security Update 2021-005 Catalina, and all Apple Watches prior to watchOS 7.6.2.
In March 2021, we examined the phone of a Saudi activist who has chosen to remain anonymous, and determined that they had been hacked with NSO Group’s Pegasus spyware. During the course of the analysis we obtained an iTunes backup of the device.
Figure 1: The GIF ﬁles we found on the phone.
Recent re-analysis of the backup yielded several ﬁles with the “.gif” extension in Library/SMS/Attachments that we determined were sent to the phone immediately before it was hacked with NSO Group’s Pegasus spyware.
27 copies of an identical ﬁle with the “.gif” extension. Despite the extension, the ﬁle was actually a 748-byte Adobe PSD ﬁle. Each copy of this ﬁle caused an IMTranscoderAgent crash on the device. These ﬁles each had random-looking ten-character ﬁlenames.
Four different ﬁles with the “.gif” extension that were actually Adobe PDF ﬁles containing a JBIG2-encoded stream. Two of these ﬁles had 34-character names, and two had 97-character names.
The output of the pdﬁd tool on these four “.gif” ﬁles was (NB: the stream had varying length):
PDF Comment ‘%PDF-1.3\n\n’
obj 1 0
<< /Type /XRef /Size 9 /W [1 3 1] /Length … /Filter [/FlateDecode /FlateDecode /JBIG2Decode] /DecodeParms >>
<< /Size 2 >>
PDF Comment ‘%%EOF\n’
Because the format of the ﬁles matched two types of crashes we had observed on another phone when it was hacked with Pegasus, we suspected that the “.gif” ﬁles might contain parts of what we are calling the FORCEDENTRY exploit chain.
Citizen Lab forwarded the artifacts to Apple on Tuesday, September 7. On Monday, September 13, Apple conﬁrmed that the ﬁles included a zero-day exploit against iOS and MacOS. They designated the FORCEDENTRY exploit CVE-2021-30860, and describe it as “processing a maliciously crafted PDF may lead to arbitrary code execution.”
The exploit works by exploiting an integer overﬂow vulnerability in Apple’s image rendering library (CoreGraphics). We are publishing limited technical information about CVE-2021-30860 at this time.
We observed multiple distinctive elements that allowed us to make a high-conﬁdence attribution to NSO Group:
The spyware installed by the FORCEDENTRY exploit exhibited a forensic artifact that we call CASCADEFAIL, which is a bug whereby evidence is incompletely deleted from the phone’s DataUsage.sqlite ﬁle. In CASCADEFAIL, an entry from the ﬁle’s ZPROCESS table is deleted, but not entries in the ZLIVEUSAGE table that refer to the deleted ZPROCESS entry. We have only ever seen this type of incomplete deletion associated with NSO Group’s Pegasus spyware, and we believe that the bug is distinctive enough to point back to NSO. The speciﬁc CASCADEFAIL artifact can be detected by
SELECT “CASCADEFAIL” FROM ZLIVEUSAGE WHERE ZLIVEUSAGE. ZHASPROCESS NOT IN (SELECT Z_PK FROM ZPROCESS);
The spyware installed by the FORCEDENTRY exploit used multiple process names, including the name “setframed”. That process name was used in an attack with NSO Group’s Pegasus spyware on an Al Jazeera journalist in July 2020. Notably, we did not publish that detail at the time.
FORCEDENTRY is the latest in a string of zero-click exploits linked to NSO Group. In 2019, WhatsApp ﬁxed CVE-2019-3568, a zero-click vulnerability in WhatsApp calling that NSO Group used against more than 1400 phones in a two-week period during which it was observed, and in 2020, NSO Group employed the KISMET zero-click iMessage exploit.
To our knowledge, the KISMET vulnerability was never publicly identiﬁed, though we suspect that the underlying vulnerability (if it still exists) can no longer be exploited via iMessage due to Apple’s introduction of the BlastDoor mitigation in iOS14. We suspect that NSO Group developed FORCEDENTRY, which circumvents BlastDoor, in response to this mitigation.
Despite promising their customers the utmost secrecy and conﬁdentiality, NSO Group’s business model contains the seeds of their ongoing unmasking. Selling technology to governments that will use the technology recklessly in violation of international human rights law ultimately facilitates discovery of the spyware by investigatory watchdog organizations, as we and others have shown on multiple prior occasions, and as was the case again here.
In 2016, we titled our report on the discovery of an iOS and MacOS Apple zero-day the “Million Dollar Dissident.” The title was chosen to reﬂect the huge sums that autocratic governments are willing to pay to hack their critics. Mercenary spyware companies devote substantial resources to identifying software vulnerabilities on widely used applications and then package those exploits to eager government clients, creating a highly lucrative but widely abused commercial surveillance marketplace.
Our latest discovery of yet another Apple zero day employed as part of NSO Group’s arsenal further illustrates that companies like NSO Group are facilitating “despotism-as-a-service” for unaccountable government security agencies. Regulation of this growing, highly profitable, and harmful marketplace is desperately needed.
Our ﬁnding also highlights the paramount importance of securing popular messaging apps. Ubiquitous chat apps have become a major target for the most sophisticated threat actors, including nation state espionage operations and the mercenary spyware companies that service them. As presently engineered, many chat apps have become an irresistible soft target. Without intense engineering focus, we believe that they will continue to be heavily targeted, and successfully exploited.
We thank the targets of Pegasus spyware that have allowed us to analyze their devices, with a special thanks to the individual that worked with us on this case. It is thanks to them, and their bravery, that we were able to make this discovery.
Special thanks to all at Apple for quick and responsive action.
Thanks to our Citizen Lab colleagues for feedback and editing.
MOSCOW, Sept 17 (Reuters) - Alphabet’s Google (GOOGL. O) and Apple (AAPL.O) have removed jailed Kremlin critic Alexei Navalny’s tactical voting app from their stores, his team said on Friday, after Russia accused the U.S. tech ﬁrms of meddling in its internal affairs.
Russia goes to the polls on Friday to elect a new parliament in a three-day vote that the ruling United Russia party is expected to win despite a ratings slump after the biggest crackdown on the Kremlin’s critics in years. read more
Allies of Navalny, President Vladimir Putin’s ﬁercest domestic opponent, planned to use the mobile app to organise a tactical voting campaign to deal a blow to United Russia.
Russia demanded this month that Apple and Google remove the app from their stores, saying a refusal to do so would be treated as meddling in its parliamentary election.
Apple and Google did not immediately respond to requests for comment.
On Thursday, Russia said ofﬁcial approaches had been made to the two companies’ chief executives. read more
Ivan Zhdanov, a Navalny ally based abroad, said on Friday the removal amounted to political censorship.
The company has been founded alongside Alex Fielding, who was a member of the ﬁrst iMac team and founded “Wheels of Zeus” (‘WoZ’) in 2002 — a company that created wireless location trackers - but it is unclear exactly what the company will do.
Privateer’s website is currently in “stealth mode”, with more details to be revealed at the AMOS (Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance) 2021 conference, which starts today.
Mr Wozniak also shared a short video — a compilation of various space developments over time with inspirational voice over and music - that says that it’s “up to us to do what is right and what is good … so the next generation can be better together”, alongside other generic platitudes.
Many private space companies, such as Elon Musk’s SpaceX, Jeff Bezos’ Blue Origin, and Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic, are attempting to push space travel for private citizens, such as SpaceX’s Inspiration4 voyage. Privateer, however, appears to be focused on space debris, which is becoming a major problem around the Earth.
In a press release for a 3D titanium alloy printer, spotted by Gizmodo, Privateer is described as a “satellite company focused on monitoring and cleaning up objects in space”, with Mr Wozniak quoted as saying that “the team at Privateer Space will be able to achieve the affordability and lightweighting capabilities needed to pave the way for our satellite design and launch.”
The number of active and defunct satellites around the Earth has increased from 3300 to over 7600 in the last decade, and that number could grow to as many as 100,000 satellites before 2030.
Such a substantial increase runs the risk predicted in 1978 by Nasa scientist Donald Kessler: that the domino effect of such an event could create an impenetrable layer of debris that would make terrestrial space launches impossible — essentially trapping us on Earth.
Earlier this month, a group of former astronauts, international space agencies, Nobel Laureates, and government ofﬁcials across the world signed an open letter to stop anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) testing in order to try and hamper this eventuality.